Absolute risk reduction and How Clinicians know Whether their Treatments Will Work

Measures of association are means of estimating the strength of the relationship between observed outcomes and factors that may produce the outcome. Common measures of association are the odds ratio, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, and number needed to treat. Odds ratios are used in studies in which the incidence (or true risk) of disease […]

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Hydroxyethyl starch

Hydroxyethyl starch also called HES or Hetastarch is a complex mixture of ethoxylated amylopectin of various molecular sizes; average MW 4.5 lac (range 10,000 to 1 million). The colloidal properties of 6% HES approximate those of human albumin. Plasma volume expands slightly in excess of the volume infused. This happens as extra vascular fluid is

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Degraded gelatin polymer or Polygeline is a polypeptide with average MW 30,000 which exerts oncotic pressure similar to albumin and is not that antigenic. www.copy-swiss.me Hypersensitivity reactions are rare with Polygeline, but should watched for. It is a colloid, which is a type of fluid heavier than the commonly used fluids that are called crystalloids.

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Lovenox is an anticoagulant commonly in use. It is the commercial name for Enoxaparin and is produced by Sanofi-Aventis. Lovenox is treatment of deep venous thrombosis ( DVT) and Pulmonary embolism. It is recently been prescribed tretment as well as prevention of acute coronary syndromes like unstable angina. Lovenox is a low molecular weight heparin used to prevent blood

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Amiodarone is a complex antiarrhythmic agent (predominantly class III) that shares at least some of the properties of each of the other three Vaughn-Williams classes of antiarrhythmics. Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. The mainstay of therapy is rate control, with beta-blockers being the first-line agent. However, frequently

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Amiodarone alternatives

Agents that can be considered as Amiodarone alternatives for the treatment of atrial fibrillation depend upon the patient’s cardiac history, as individuals with reduced left ventricular systolic function are especially prone to the proarrhythmic effects of certain antiarrhythmic agents. Some commonly used Amiodarone alternatives include ibutilide, dofetilide, and sotalol. Strong consideration should be made for

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Ibutilide prolongs repolarization by inhibition of the delayed rectifier potassium current (Ikr) and by selective enhancement of the slow inward sodium current. Ibutilide is a newer anti arrhythmic used in particularly for patients suffering from atrial fibrillation not responding to the commonly used medications. Ibutilide is efficacious in the termination of atrial fibrillation (AF) and flutter with both single and repeated intravenous infusions. It

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Dofetilide prolongs the action potential and QTC in a concentration-related manner. Dofetilide exerts its effects solely by inhibition of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current Ikr. Dofetilide has stronger evidence in its favor for acute cardioversion of atrial fibrillation than for maintenance thereafter, according to a meta-analysis. It can be given to

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Human albumin

Human albumin is obtained from pooled human plasma; 100 ml of 20% human albumin solution is the osmotic equivalent of about 400 ml of fresh frozen plasma or 800 ml of whole blood. It can be used without regard to patient’s blood group and does not interfere with coagulation. Unlike whole blood or plasma, human

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