Diabetes in ICU

For managing Diabetes in ICU, maintaining euglycemia (defined as glucose <110 mg/dL in intensive care unit settings and <180 mg/dL in non intensive care unit settings by American College of Endocrinology Consensus Guidelines) has been shown to greatly reduce morbidity and mortality. This has created a paradigm shift in the inpatient setting where the goal […]

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Erythromycin prokinetic agent

Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and is effective against the same organisms as penicillin G. The drug is commonly used to treat community-acquired pulmonary infections in penicillin-allergic patients. Erythromycin also has prokinetic effects on the gastrointestinal system. At low doses, erythromycin prokinetic agent induces activity in the gastric antrum, which

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ACE inhibitors in myocardial infarction

In general, patients initiated on ACE inhibitors in myocardial infarction (MI) have demonstrated a reduction in overall mortality by about 20% to 30%. This benefit is most profound in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure and their therapy should be continued indefinitely. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates aldosterone release in the body via the action

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Hyperglycemia in ICU

Hyperglycemia, defined as blood glucose levels >110 mg/dL, has been shown in multiple studies to adversely impact outcomes in critically ill patients. Patients who are diabetic are at an increased risk for developing hyperglycemia postoperatively. With the harm of hyperglycemia in ICU now known, it is important to search out patient factors that can contribute

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Prior probability

Shaping a differential diagnosis is a process of categorizing the probabilities of various diseases associated with the patient history and exam. The probability that a patient has the disease before any diagnostic testing is done is known as the prior probability of disease. Diagnostic testing increases or decreases the likelihood that a person has the

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Clinical decision making

To make informed, evidence-based decisions, providers need to have an understanding of several statistical concepts. The clinical decision making process begins by assessing information by means of a history and physical examination framed within an understanding of the relative probabilities of disease states. The next step is to determine the likelihood that the patient has

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