Recurring infection in the kidneys can lead to chronic pyelonephritis which if untreated can lead to kidney failure. Chronic pyelonephritis is commonly observed in patients suffering from other underlying problems like anatomic anomalies including urinary tract obstruction. In certain cases involving struvite calculi or renal dysplasia the conditions may lead to kidney infection.
The most common form of presentation of chronic pyelonephritis may be seen in young children who are having the vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).Thus when there is recurring urinary tract infection in the children then this could be an indication of the presence of chronic pyelonephritis. Radiological investigation may reveal extensive scarring on the kidneys and in certain cases the disease may also have progressed to the end stage renal disease.
There are other symptoms associated with the disease like intrarenal reflux of infected urine. In other cases the renal scars may form in utero in the patients suffering from renal dysplasia. This dysplasia may be acquired due to obstruction in the urinary tract. The diagnosis of the disease may depend on the sex of the level of sexual activity. There may be bacterial infection in the body that could travel to the kidneys and cause chronic pyelonephritis infection that is also associated with neurogenic bladder infection.