Pyelonephritis is a life threatening disease that is caused by recurring infections that damage the kidneys. Pyelonephritis pathophysiology helps us understand how this disease occurs. According to research, it has been found that there is a wide variation in the severity of infection, disposition and clinical presentation of the disease, in a large number of people. Pyelonephritis may cause sepsis, multi organ system failure, scarring in kidneys or kidney failure.
According to the pyelonephritis pathophysiology, the bacterial infections occur mainly in the renal parenchyma. Most of the diseases causing bacteria belong to the genus Escherichia Coli. The pyelonephritis pathophysiology reveals the presence of various toxins like alpha hemolysin, cytolethal distending toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 and secreted auto transporter toxin.
Adhesions play an important role in pyelonephritis pathophysiology as there is release of cytokine due LPS shed from a membrane during the process of bacterial lyses. Various physical changes associated with pyelonephritis also include the presentation of high fever and the patient may present a toxic appearance, if there is an underlying problem like sepsis or a perinephric abscess.
The pelvic examination will reveal a considerable amount of tenderness in the cervix and uterus would be absent. An abdominal examination shows a suprapubic tenderness that will range from mild to moderate. The bowel sounds will be normoactive and further examination may also reveal CVA (costovertebral angle) tenderness. It has been found that pyelonephritis pathophysiology causes moderate mortality.