The main function of the pulmonary artery is to carry blood from the heart to the lungs. The pulmonary artery arises from the base of the right ventricle and ends in the lungs. This artery is commonly referred to as the pulmonary trunk or main pulmonary artery. Unlike all other arteries, the pulmonary artery is the only artery that transfers deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
The pulmonary artery plays an important role in the process of respiration it carries the deoxygenated blood containing carbondixoide that is absorbed the alveoli by the process of the diffusion. Then the blood is replenished with oxygen and circulated to the entire body through the left ventricle in the heart. The pulmonary artery has a damper of 3 cm and lengthwise it is 5 cm. This artery bifurcates into the left and right pulmonary arteries that are connected to the left and right lungs respectively.
When there are various disorders like pulmonary embolism and scleroderma, the functioning of the artery would be retarded. This leads to pulmonary hypertension where the blood pressure inside the pulmonary arteries is very high and this can also lead to right heart failure. Pulmonary hypertension is the result of various underlying lung diseases.