Polyvinylpyrrolidone PPV is a synthetic polymer (average MW 40,000) used as a 3.5% solution. It is used as a volume or plasma expander and is used to increase the intravascular compartment fluid. It interferes with blood grouping and cross-matching and is a histamine releaser. Polyvinylpyrrolidone ppv is slowly excreted by kidney and small amounts by liver into bile. A fraction is stored in RE cells for prolonged periods. Polyvinylpyrrolidone ppv has been found to bind penicillin and insulin in circulation so that the same is not available for action. Polyvinylpyrrolidone ppv is infrequently used as a plasma expander.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone ppv Commercial preparations are:
OSMOPLASMA, SIOPLASMA; 3.5% solution in buffered normal saline, 540 ml vac.
USE OF PLASMA EXPANDERS like Polyvinylpyrrolidone ppv
These colloidal solutions are used primarily as substitutes for plasma in conditions where plasma has been lost or has moved to extravascular compartment, e.g. in burns, hypovolemic and endotoxin shock, severe trauma and extensive tissue damage. They can also be used as a temporary measure in cases of whole blood loss till the same can be arranged: but they do not have O2 carrying capacity.
Contraindications to plasma expanders are— severe anaemia, cardiac failure, pulmonary edema, renal insufficiency.