Antrectomy is often compared to a partial gastrectomy since it involved the surgical removal of a part of the stomach. During an antrectomy, the antrum which is located in the lower third part of the stomach, just above the pyloric canal is removed. To be more specific, the antrectomy involves the removal of the antrum pyloricum which empties the content of the stomach into the small intestine.

An antrectomy is often advised to patients suffering from peptic ulcers. In case the peptic ulcer disease also known as PUD has reached an advanced stage, where there is excessive bleeding, which cannot be controlled by medication and there is an obstruction; due to which the stomach is not able to empty its contents into the duodenum. In this case, surgery is the only resort. Moreover, it has been found that removal of the atrium also reduces the level of acid secretion into the stomach.

Various other conditions that can be treated with anterectomy are cancers of the digestive tract involving a malignant gastric ulcer, or any anterovenus malformations in the stomach, gastric outlet obstruction and any stab wounds or gun shots. In the later case, the surgery is performed as an emergency procedure, in case the blood vessels that supply blood to the small intestine have been destroyed.

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